An Anatomical and Functional Perspective of the Pelvic Floor and Urogenital Organ Support System

Gorniak, Gerard PT, PhD; Conrad, William PT, DPT, MS, MCT

Journal of Women’s Health Physical Therapy:
May/August 2015 – Volume 39 – Issue 2 – p 65–82
doi: 10.1097/JWH.0000000000000033
Research Reports


Introduction: The anatomy of the pelvic floor and the supportive role of the connective tissue and muscular components are complex and difficult to understand.

Methods: In this descriptive anatomy study, anatomical descriptions in the literature are combined with pelvic dissections of 17 females and 10 males.

Results and Discussion: This description includes (1) the anatomy and functional interactions of the muscle of the true pelvis; (2) the anatomy and functions of the endopelvic support structures in females and males; (3) descriptions of visceral support concepts incorporating muscular and endopelvic elements, and (4) the consequences of changes in the anatomy and functions of these supporting structure with disuse, posture, trauma, pregnancy, childbirth, abdominal adiposity, and aging.

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